"India is becoming a powerhouse very fast"
~ Peter Drucker

India Facts

Dateline of Events

Few countries in the world have roots that stretch back in time to pre-recorded history. The earliest human activity in the Indian sub-continent can be traced back to the early, middle and late Stone Ages (400,000-200,000 BC). Here we provide a dateline through which we define the history of India from the time of the Harappa civilisation. The dateline is neither exhaustive nor comprehensive, but broadly defines important events in the history of India.

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2700 BC Harappa Civilisation
1000 BC Aryans expand into the Ganga valley
900 BC Mahabharata War
800 BC Aryans expand into Bengal; Beginning of the Epic Age: Mahabharata composed, first version of Ramayana
550 BC Composition of the Upanishads
544 BC Buddha's Nirvana
327 BC Alexander's Invasion
325 BC Alexander marches ahead
324 BC Chandragupta Maurya defeats Seleacus Nicator
322 BC Rise of the Mauryas; Chandragupta establishes first Indian Empire
298 BC Bindusara coronated
272 BC Ashoka reigns
180 BC Fall of the Mauryas ; Rise of the Sungas
145 BC : Chola king Erata conquers Ceylon
58 BC Epoch of the Krita-Malava-Vikram Era
30 BC Rise of the Satvahana Dynasty in the Deccan
40 AD Sakas in power in Indus Valley and Western India
50 AD The Kushans and Kanishkas
78 AD Saka Era begins
320 AD Chandragupta I establishes the Gupta dynasty
360 AD Samudragupta conquers the North and most of the Deccan
380 AD Chandragupta II comes to power; Golden Age of Gupta Literary Renaissance
405 AD Fa-hein begins his travels through the Gupta Empire
415 AD Accession of Kumara Gupta I
467 AD Skanda Gupta assumes power
476 AD Birth of astronomer Aryabhatta
606 AD Accession of Harshavardhan Gupta
622 AD Era of the Hejira begins
711 AD Invasion of Sind by Muhammad Bin Qasim
892 AD Rise of the Eastern Chalukyas
985 ADThe Chola Dynasty: Accession of Rajaraja, the Great
1001 ADDefeat of Jaipal by Sultan Mahumd
1026Mahmud Ghazni sacks Somnath Temple
1191Prithviraj Chauhan routs Muhammad Ghori: the first battle of Tarain
1192Ghori defeats Prithviraj Chauhan: the second battle of Tarain
1206Qutbuddin establishes the Slave Dynasty
1221Mongol invasion under Genghis Khan
1232Foundation of the Qutub Minar
1288Marco Polo visits India
1290Jalaludin Firuz Khalji establishes the Khalji dynasty
1320Ghiyasuddin Tughluk founds the Tughluk dynasty
1325Accession of Muhammad-bin-Tughluk
1336Foundation of Vijayanagar (Deccan)
1398Timur invades India
1424Rise of the Bahmani dynasty (Deccan)
1451The Lodi dynasty established in Delhi
1489 Adil Shah establishes dynasty at Bijapur
1490Nizam Shahi dynasty at Ahmednagar starts
1498Vasco da Gama lands in India
1510The Portuguese capture Goa
1518Kutub Shahi dynasty established at Golconda
1526The beginning of the Mughul Dynasty with the First Battle of Panipat and Babur defeating the Lodis
1526-1530Reign of Babur
1530Humayun succeeds Babur
1538Death of Guru Nanak
1539Sher Shah Suri defeats Humayan and becomes Emperor of Delhi
1555Humayun recovers the throne of Delhi
1556Death of Humayun leads to accession of Akbar.
1564Akbar abolishes poll tax on Hindus
1565Battle of Talikota where Muslim rulers in Deccan overcome the Vijaynagar Empire
1568Fall of Chittaur
1571Foundation of Fatehpur Sikri by Akbar
1572Akbar annexes Gujarat
1573Surat surrenders to Akbar
1575Battle of Tukaroi
1576Battle of Haldighat: Akbar defeats Rana Pratap; Subjugation of Bengal
1577Akbar invades Khandesh
1580Accession of Ibrahim Adil Shah II in Bengal. Rebellion in Bihar and Bengal
1581Akbar's march against Muhammad Hakim and reconciliation with him
1586Annexation of Kashmir
1591Mughul conquest of Sind
1592Annexation of Orissa
1595Siege of Ahmednagar; Annexation of Baluchistan
1597Akbar completes his conquests
1600Charter of the English East India Company
1602Formation of the United East India Company of Netherlands
1605Death of Akbar follwed by Jahangir suucceding to the throne
1606Rebellion of Khusrav; Execution of the Fifth Sikh Guru, Arjan
1612The Mughul Governor of Bengal defeats the rebellious Afghans and the Mughuls annex Kuch Hajo
1615Submission of Mewar to the Mughuls; Arrival of Sir Thomas Roe in India
1620Capture of Kangra Fort; Malik Ambar revolts in the Deccan
1622Shah Abbas of Persia beseiges and takes Qandahar
1623Shah Jahan revolts against Jahangir
1624Suppression of Shah Jahan's rebellion
1627Death of Jahangir, followed by Shah Jahan succeeding
1628Shah Jahan proclaimed Emperor
1631Death of Shah Jahan's wife Mumtaz Mahal and the construction of Taj Mahal
1632Mughul invasion of Bijapur; Grant of the "Golden Firman" to the English Company by the Sultan of Golkunda
1633End of Ahmednagar Dynasty
1636Aurangzeb appointed Viceroy of Deccan
1639Foundation of Fort St. George at Madras by the English
1646Shivaji captures Torna
1656The Mughuls attack Hyderabad and Golkunda; Annexation of Javli by Shivaji
1657Invasion of Bijapur by Aurangzeb; Aurangzeb captures Bidar and Kalyani
1658Coronation of Aurangzeb
1659Battles of Khajwah and Deorai
1661Cession of Bombay to the English; Mughul capture Cooch Bihar
1664Shivaji sacks Surat and assumes royal title
1666Death of Shah Jahan; Shivaji's visit to Agra and escape
1674Shivaji assumes the title of Chhatrapati
1678Marwar occupied by the Mughuls
1680Death of Shivaji
1686Fall of Bijapur
1689Execution of Sambhaji
1698The new English company trading to the East Indies
1699First Maratha raid on Malwa
1707Death of Aurangzeb and the Battle of Jajau
1714Husain Ali appointed Viceroy of the Deccan. Treaty of Marathas with Husain Ali
1739Nadir Shah conquers Delhi
1740Accession of Balaji Rao Peshwa. The Marathas invade Arcot
1742Marathas invade Bengal
1750War of the Deccan and Carnatic Succession; Death of Nasir Jang
1751Treaty of Alivadi with the Marathas
1756Siraj-ud-daulah captures Calcutta
1757Battle of Plassey: The British defeat Siraj-ud-daulah
1760Battle of Wandiwash: The British defeat the French
1761Third battle of Panipat: Ahmed Shah Abdali defeats the Marathas; Accession of Madhava Rao Peshwa; Rise of Hyder Ali
1764Battle of Buxar: The British defeat Mir Kasim
1765The British get Diwani Rights in Bengal, Bihar and Orissa
1767-1769First Mysore War: The British conclude a humiliating peace pact with Hyder Ali
1772Death of Madhava Rao Peshwa; Warren Hastings appointed as Governor of Bengal
1773The Regulating Act passed by the British Parliament
1774Warren Hastings appointed as Governor-General
1775-1782The First Anglo-Maratha war
1780-Second Mysore War :The British defeat Hyder Ali
1784Pitt's India Act
1790-1792Third Mysore War between the British and Tipu
1793Permanent Settlement of Bengal
1794Death of Mahadaji Sindhia
1799 Fourth Mysore War:The British defeat Tipu; Death of Tipu; Partition of Mysore
1802Treaty of Bassein
1803-1805The Second Anglo-Maratha war: The British defeat the Marathas at Assaye:Treaty of Amritsar
1814-1816The Anglo-Gurkha war
1817-1818The Pindari war
1817-1819The last Anglo-Maratha war: Marathas finally crushed by the British
1824-1826The First Burmese war
1829Prohibition of Sati
1829-1837Suppression of Thuggee
1831Raja of Mysore deposed and its administration taken over by East India Company
1833Renewal of Company's Charter and the abolition of company's trading rights
1838Tripartite treaty between Shah Shuja, Ranjit Singh and the British
1839-1842First Afghan war
1843Gwalior war
1845-1846First Anglo-Sikh war
1848Lord Dalhousie becomes the Governor-General
1848-1849Second Anglo-Sikh war with the rise of the Sikhs followed by the British annexing Punjab as Sikhs are defeated
1852Second Anglo-Burmese war
1853Railway opened from Bombay to Thane, telegraph line from Calcutta to Agra
1857First War of Indian Independence
1858British Crown takes over the Indian Government
1861Indian Councils Act, Indian High Courts Act, Introduction of the Penal Code
1868Punjab Tenancy Act, Railway opened from Ambala to Delhi
1874The Bihar Famine
1877Delhi Durbar: The Queen of England proclaimed Empress of India
1878Vernacular Press Act
1885First meeting of the Indian National Congress; Bengal Tenancy Act
1897Plague in Bombay. Famine Commission
1899Lord Curzon becomes Governor-General and Viceroy
1905The First Partition of Bengal
1906Formation of Muslim League; Congress declaration regarding Swaraj
1911Delhi Durbar; Partition of Bengal modified to create the Presidency of Bengal
1912The Imperial capital shifted from Calcutta to Delhi
1916Home Rule League founded, Jalianwalla Bagh massacre
1920Mahatma Gandhi leads the Congress, non-co-operation movement started
1921First Census of India
1922Civil Disobedience Movement, followed by violence at Chauri-Chaura which leads Gandhi to suspend movement
1923Inclusion of Swarajis in Indian Councils, certification of Salt Tax; Hindu-Muslim riots
1927Simon Commission Appointed
1928Simon Commission comes to India, boycotted by all parties.
1929Lord Irwin promises Dominion status for India, Jawaharlal Nehru hoists the National Flag at Lahore
1930Civil Disobedience movement continues, salt satyagraha, Gandhiji's Dandi March, First Round Table Conference
1931Second Round Table Conference; Irwin-Gandhi Pact; Census of India
1932Third Round Table Conference
1933Publication of White Paper on Indian reforms
1934Civil Disobedience Movement called off; Bihar Earthquake
1935Government of India Act
1937Inauguration of Provincial Autonomy; Congress ministries formed in a majority of Indian provinces
1939Political deadlock in India as Congress ministries resign
1942Cripps Mission to India, Congress adopts Quit India Resolution, Congress leaders arrested, Subhash Chandra Bose forms Indian National Army
1944Gandhi-Jinnah talks break down on Pakistan issue
1945First trial of Indian Army men opened
1946Mutiny in Royal Indian Navy, Cabinet Mission's plan announced, Muslim League decides to participate in the Interim Government, Interim Government formed, Constituent Assembly's first meeting
15 Aug 1947Indian Independence, Jawaharlal Nehru becomes the first Indian Prime Minister
1948Reserve Bank of India nationalized, Mahatma Gandhi assassinated, B.R.Ambedkar presents first Draft Constitution to Constituent Assembly
26 Jan 1950Republic of India declared with the Constitution of India in force
1951First Five year plan set in motion
'51- Feb'52First General Election
1956Second Five year Plan
1957Second General Election held
1959 Dalai Lama flees from Tibet to India, military confrontation with China in Aksai Chin
1961Liberation of Goa
1962Third General election
1962Indo-China war
1964Jawaharlal Nehru dies, Lal Bahadur Shastri becomes Prime Minister
1965Indo-Pak war
1966Lal Bahadur Shastri dies, Indira Gandhi becomes Prime Minister
1967Fourth General Election
1969Morarji Desai resigns from cabinet, fourteen Banks nationalized, Indira Gandhi expelled from Congress party for indiscipline
1970Supreme court holds nationalisation of banks illegal, Privy Purses and special privileges of former Indian rulers abolished
971Fifth General Election, Indo-Pakistan War
1973Coal mines nationalised; Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) passed
1974Underground nuclear explosion at Pokhran
1975Indian satellite Aryabhatta launched, Sikkim joins India, Emergency declared Indira Gandhi announces 20-point economic programme
1976Private Oil companies nationalized, Urban Land Ceiling Regulation Act passed
1977Sixth General Election: first Non-Congress Govt, led by Morarji Desai
1979Morarji Desai resigns after split in Janata Party, Seventh General Election, Indira Gandhi becomes Prime Minister again
1982The Ninth Asian games held in Delhi
1983Indira Gandhi imposes President's rule on Punjab
1984Operation Blue Star where Indian army storms Golden Temple in Amritsar, killing hundreds of people. Indira Gandhi assassinated in Delhi and Rajiv Gandhi sworn in as Prime Minister. India's biggest industrial disaster: Bhopal gas tragedy, Eighth General Election: Congress wins with Rajiv Gandhi as Prime Minister
1985Narmada Bachao Andolan
1988Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) comes into existence, Insat-IC launched
1989Ninth General Election: Congress loses; V.P. Singh becomes Prime Minister
1990Mandal Commission Report
1991Rajiv Gandhi assassinated by LTTE , tenth General Election in which Congress wins and Narasimha Rao becomes Prime Minister. Liberalisation initiated by Finance Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh
1992Demolition of Babri Masjid
1993 Hindu-Muslim riots in Bombay, Rupee made convertible on trade account, over 300 people killed in bomb blasts, Latur earthquake
1994Telecom services sector opened to private companies
1996Eleventh General Election; BJP's Atal Behari Vajpayee becomes Prime Minister, BJP loses confidence vote; Deve Gowda takes over as Prime Minister of United Front coalition government
1997Congress withdraws support to UF government, I.K.Gujral appointed Prime Minister, nation celebrates 50 years of Independence, Gujral government falls as Congress withdraws support, Sonia Gandhi steps into active politics
1998BJP-led alliance government is sworn in. Atal Behari Vajpayee becomes the Prime Minister of India, India conducts three underground nuclear tests at Pokhran in Rajasthan.
1999 Lok Sabha elections lead to National Democratic Alliance forming a coalition government with Atal Behari Vajpayee as Prime Minister. Pakistan backed insurgents infiltrate Kargil valley, deep in Indian territory, and are successfully pushed back.

Compiled by Romola Butalia

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Editor: Romola Butalia       (c) India Travelogue. All rights reserved.